몽골연구소에서는 몽골국립대 국제관계대학의 바이샤흐 교수를 초청하여 2012년 08월 13일 세미나를 개최하였습니다.
몽골국립대 국제관계대학 바이샤흐 교수는 몽골의 저명한 역사학자이자 교육자, 정치가, 행정가이며
특히 몽골과 한국의 문화 교류에 기초를 놓고 지속적으로 지원을 아끼지 않은 몽골에서 최고가는 학자로서 칭송되어지는 분이십니다.
이날 세미나에서는 "몽골의 안보" "상하이 협력기구에서의 몽골의 옵저버 지위 유지"에 관한 주제로 세미나를 진행하였습니다.
“ Thinking About Security of Mongolia”
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF MONGOLIA
Mongolia during the Cold war has exclusive relation only with the northern neighbor and tried to built so called socialism and belongs to the eastern bloc and had confrontation with southern neighbor. That tension in bilateral relation of Mongolia and China lasts almost two decades till the Soviet-Chinese raapprochement in the mid-1980’s.At that time the Mongolian and Chinese border was a frontline of the Soviet and Chinese troops were posted against each other. With withdrawal of the Soviet troops in 1990-1991 the relationship of two countries fully recovered and now developed and got a good neighbor comprehensive partnership. State visits of two countries became a regular. The basic document of bilateral relationship the Treaty of mutual friendship and cooperation signed in 1994.
Russians since the beginning a new millennium gave a great attention to the development of bilateral relation and made twice a state visit and released twice communiqué in Ulaabaatar and Moscow. The basic document on bilateral relation the Treaty of mutual friendship and cooperation signed in 1993.Now the relationship between two neighbors named as the traditional good relationship comprehensive partnership.
The importance of development of bilateral relationship with Mongolia didn’t mentioned namely, but they mentioned will develop the relationship with all neighbors in which we are included.
The similar words on relationship with Mongolia we can find in our south neighbors the Chinese Communist Party Congress documents and in the party report which were in power till the next party congress. In such document foreign policy and security issues were included.
Mongolia in 1993 announced a single state nuclear weapon free zone status and the UN Security Council members including our neighbors recognized it. Aftermath many countries expressed to create a nuclear weapon free zone in Central Asia and in other regions.
Thinking about Security
Mongolia created it’s the national security concept in1994.
Security studies has been a European, both in concept and focus. Asia has had a different set of experiences and concerns. Therefore some concepts that resonate more in Asia than in Europe.
Security concepts are: military, collective,common,cooperative,comprehensive and human security.
Common security:security is not a zero-sum phenomenon to be obtained unilaterally.
Cooperative security: inclusivity, habit of dialogue, multilateral (between states) and plural(within states) processes.
Comprehensive security: many core values,many (potential) threats, utilization of many available means,comprehensive capabilities,inter and external focus,defensive sefense,both security and economics,crisis prevention rather than management.
Human security-it’s about people not states.
Among abovementioned security concepts the comprehensive security is to protect vital interests 9 core values) from internal and external threats. These core values can vary depending on internal and external circumstances-they would include military security, territorial integrity, economic viability and national political stability(Yamamoto,1995).
Comprehensive security is one of the most widely used security concepts in the Asia-Pacific region. According to Muthiah Alagappa, the term was firstly coined in Japan during the Ohira Administration in the 1970’s,but it has also found strong support among Southeast Asian states, particularly Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Since the end of the Cold War, interest in inclusive approaches to security has spread to the other parts of the Asia-Pacific region. For example, Mongolia’s concept of national security, which was officially articulated in 1994, also embraces much of the substance of comprehensive security(David Capie, Paul Evans. The Asia-Pacific security lexicon,Singapore,2002,p.64).
“THE KEEPING AN OBSERVER STATUS OF MONGOLIA TO THE SCO”
HOW THE SCO WAS ESTABLISHED?
When the SCO was established in 2000 the world system was under the unipolar domination under the USA leadership. In that time Russia and China created this organization with purpose fight against the three “ism” namely: separatism, terrorism and extremism. But in reality it was established for standing against the US domination in the international system and its hegemony and its hierarchy. Since its establishment many western politicians black labeled it as rise of the Eastern bloc or new NATO in Asia.
But with 9/11 terror it show itself as a weak organization which is not able stand against the US and UK intervention to Iraq and Afghanistan without the UN sanction and kept silence and blind to their action. As a weak organization their key members of that organization Russia and China recognized the US antiterrorist coalition and stand in one side the recent world hegemony-USA and start to talk about the existing the terror in their countries. For example Russia has have a problem with Chechnya and fall in state of war and Russian mass media described the situation in that region as a worse and unpredictable and danger for statehood existence. China followed Russia and suddenly announced the situation in Xinjiang Autonomous Region also worse and the Uighur issue might became headache for China and recognized them as separatists and extremists and terrorists and noted the Uighurs has established link with the US main enemy Al Qaida. So Russia and China became a supporter of the US antiterrorist coalition. All those countries including the USA have own problem in their external and internal policy and their found an enemies in and out of their country. Their also regional and world powers and all of them nuclear powers too.
With acceptance the antiterrorist policy of the USA the key members of the SCO-Russia and China paid more attention economic cooperation among the other members of the SCO. Now that organizations member states have different level of influence which is dictated by their contribution to membership fee. The main position among the member countries have Russia and China each paid around 15-20% of fee and Kazakhstan paid near 10% of fee. So they are the influential member states of the SCO and most decisions made by them. Other members of that organization Kirgizstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and
Turkmenistan is nominal members and they didn’t have much voice in compare with main members. Some of them for example Uzbekistan didn’t receive any benefit being a member of the SCO. According the SCO charter member states should pay priority to their foreign and economic policy towards the member states should pay less attention to the rest of the world(). Having such status Uzbekistan lost foreign investment opportunity from outside of the world and foreign joint venture companies which had their investment before left it and recognized Uzbekistan as disadvantage country for business. I was there several years ago and witnessed that now only Russia, China, Turkey and South Korea companies investing to Uzbekistan and doing business. During the existence of the USSR in this area was developed cotton industry and was famous with it products, but now all gone and fall in stack. Now Uzbekistan in the SCO could influence to the small state badly. Having such affect I am all the time talking it to my colleagues and the decision makers how some membership in to the International organization such as the SCO might be worse to the states other than major power.
THE MONGOLIAN INVOLVEMENT TO THE SCO
Mongolia with a purpose to have an active position into the interregional cooperation under the resolution of the National Security Council in 2004 decided enter to the SCO as observer when the SCO transportation. Mongolia in early 1990’s declared as a country of the North East Asia, but we are located in the Central Asia too. But under the definition made by the Asian Development Bank Mongolia is the surrounding country such as Russia, China, Afghanistan and Azerbaijan. So Mongolia is land bridge or land link between the North East Asia or East Asia( Bayasakh. J.K, Foreign Policy and Security, UB.,2010, pp. 148-152).In future Mongolia should use that geopolitical unique location as a important playing card in interregional affairs and use it to get the win-win situation in own development. Earlier we used the term word like Mongolia as a landlocked country. That lexicon was a kind of definition to Mongolia that helped to get ODA assistance during hard time in early 1990’s when Russians left Mongolia. The main ODA assistance came from Japan and they organized the donor Mongolia countries meeting ten times. Nowadays Mongolia expressed their gratitude to the Japanese people and government many times specially during recent the tsunami catastrophe of last March of this year.
Since 2004 when Mongolia received the observer status to the SCO participated in different level meetings. Mongolian President participated to the SCO member states Presidents meeting four times in 2005,2006,2007,2010. Also participated to the Prime Ministers Meeting twice in 2005 and 2008.Our foreign minister participated to the minister meeting in 2005.In 2007 our country the first time among the observer states invited the SCO secretary to visit Mongolia .During the above mentioned meetings we organized some bilateral meetings and discussed about future collaboration with some member states .So we have an interest to be involved to the activities of SCO being as a surrounding country or land bridge between the Central and East Asia.
Except Mongolia the SCO have some other observer states like India, Pakistan and Iran. All of them have a different goal being an observer. India and Pakistan still have difficulty on their bilateral relation. Iran wants have support on its nuclear program. Pakistan wants enter to this organization and stand with China and seeking to get some benefit from it. India as a regional power wants its involvement to the neighboring region and organization. Mongolia wants to be involved to the security cooperation, but it less developed in the SCO now. It seems will not develop on this field in coming future.